Since 2000, many large areas of intact and primary forests that have developed over the past 10,000 years (the Holocene era) have been radically disrupted, degraded or destroyed. An unprecedented part has occurred in the last ten years. This is due to industrial exploitation and the expansion of agriculture, coupled with illegal logging, massive trade and illegal exports, mainly to China. With no signs of slowing these trends, threats to critical regional ecosystems of all kinds and biodiversity in the Mekong appear to be increasing in the coming decades (Corlett, 2013). Order routing includes local brokers to have a bilateral agreement with at least one broker in the other exchange and to open a trading account with them, as they are not registered as members of that exchange, where trading is executed. Such agreements guarantee compliance and help with resolution. As soon as the local broker receives a commercial request from its local customers via call/online, the broker sends the order to its exchange via its local gateway. The order is then transmitted through the IAN hub to the currency gateway and then to the appropriate platform of that exchange. On this date it becomes an order from the foreign broker (who had bilateral agreement with the local broker), since the local broker enters their foreign broker partner`s ID while he sends the trade.
The foreign broker trades on this exchange. The foreign broker may receive these orders in real time or at the end of the day. The local broker remains aware of the state of execution that passes in relation to the trade route. The gateways also serve as a transfer point for market data, which also circulates in relation to the trade route. All these intertwined cases create confusion in trade. With regard to bilateral and regional agreements, it is essential, by definition, to determine the origin of imports. However, foreign direct investment (FDI), offshoring and merger practices can make the decision to trace the origin of a product a laborious one. Genealogical rules become comical: according to NAFTA, Mexican coats cannot be exported duty-free to the United States if Mexican fur manufacturers import either the substance or the yarn, unless the substance is Harris Tweed, which is imported from the United Kingdom (due to special treatment with the United Kingdom). From a legal point of view, this second part is not required, in a unilateral treaty, to actually accomplish the task and cannot argue as an offence, because it does not do so. If it is a bilateral treaty, both parties would have a legal obligation.