By signing this treaty, the participating parties demonstrate their determination to create the first supranational institution, and thus lay the true foundations of an organised Europe. This Europe remains open to all nations. We sincerely hope that other nations will join us in our joint efforts. Question 10. Explain the vertical separation of powers using Indian examples. (2013) Answer: When power is shared at different levels, i.e. the Union or the central government, the government and the municipality and the Panchayat at the lower level. This separation of powers from higher and lower levels is called vertical separation of powers. Vertical separation of powers in India: question 7. Is much of the official work in Indian countries done in which language? (2014) Response: Much of the official work done in the Indian states is done in the official language of the state concerned. De facto or quasi-federation federations are often referred to as “regional states.” An empire is a multi-ethnic state, a multi-ethnic state or a group of nations with a central government that is normally built by coercion (following the model of the Roman Empire). An empire often includes autonomous regions, but they will have autonomy in the need of the central government. On the other hand, a political entity, which is a kingdom in the name, may include several partially autonomous kingdoms, organized into a single federation, the kingdom being ruled by an emperor or a great king (great king, great king, king of kings…).
The German Empire (1871-1918) was an example. The federal government is the common or national government of a federal state. A federal government may have different powers at different levels that are approved or delegated by its member states. The structure of federal governments is different. On the basis of a broad definition of fundamental federalism, there are two or more levels of government that exist within an established territory and govern by common institutions with overlapping or divided powers, as required by a Constitution. Question 1. Which state in India has its own constitution? (2012) Answer: Jammu and Kashmir The EU is a three-pillar structure of the European International Economic Community of origin and the Euratom Non-Proliferation Treaty, as well as two largely interstate pillars in the field of foreign affairs, justice and home affairs. The EU is therefore not a de jure federation, although some academic observers conclude that after 50 years of institutional development, it has been one since the Treaty of Rome.  The European Union has the attributes of a federal state.
However, its central government is much weaker than that of most federations and individual members are sovereign states of international law, so it is generally characterized as an unprecedented form of supranational union. The EU is responsible for important areas such as trade, monetary union, agriculture and fisheries. Nevertheless, EU Member States retain the right to act independently on foreign and defence policy and enjoy a quasi-monopoly in other important policy areas, such as criminal justice and taxation.